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Paper Urinaria

Paper Urinaria


A. The Background
Toxicity is a term in Toxicology which is defined as the ability of chemicals to cause damage/injuri. The term is a qualitative term toxicity, occurs whether or not the occurrence of the damage depends on the amount of chemical elements terabsopsi (anonymous, 2008). This process occurs if new damage on the target organs have been piling up a sufficient amount of toxic agent or metabolitnya, as it does not mean that the buildup of the highest of the toxic agents that are in the target organ, but it could be another place. For example, chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides achieve concentrations in the fat depots of the body, but there did not produce the effects of the poisoning is known. Furthermore, for most toxins, a high concentration in the body will cause more damage. The concentration of toxins in the body is a function of the amount of toxins that are described, relating to the speed of the absorpsinya and the amount absorbed, is also associated with distribution, metabolism and excretion of the toksis agent (Mansur, 2008)
Toxic effects are very varied in nature, the target organ, as well as the mechanism of it works. Toksikan generally affect only one or a few organs. One of them is the system, in particular the urinaria kidneys. In certain circumstances, anesthetic will be bad for health, is likely to cause death or just small changes cause biologik once. The exposure can be a variety of toxic effects on living creatures and other system biologik.

B. Formulation Of The Problem
1. What is your understanding of the system and parts of the urinaria?
2. What are the nefrotoksikan and where it works?
3. What are heavy metals and their effects on the system urinaria?
4. how the procedures of testing toxic effects on the system urinaria? 
C. The Purpose
1. to know the understanding and 24 – the urinaria system.
2. to know the ingredients nefrotoksikan and work on the system urinaria.
3. to find out the type of arthritis affecting the heavy metals and their effects on system urinaria.
4. to know the testing procedure to assess the toxic effects on the system urinaria. 


A. Understanding Urinaria System And Parts Of The Urinaria System
The system is an important system urinaria to dispose of the remains of the metabolism of the food which is produced by the body primarily nitrogen compounds such as urea and creatinin, foreign substances and products the rest. Urinaria system consists of: both kidneys (ren, kidney), Ureteral, bladder (urinary bladder vesika urinaria//nier) and the urethra. Garbage metabolisma is issued (secreted) by the kidneys in the form of urine. The urine is the main route for excretion the bulk of toksikan. As a result, the kidneys have a high volume of blood flow, bringing toksikanpada mengkonsentrasi toksikan filtrate through the tubules, and enable a certain toksikan. As a result, the kidneys are the main target organs from toxic effects. The urine then going down through the ureter to the bladder to be temporarily stored and finally periodically will be expelled through the urethra. Section – section urinaria system include:
1. Kidney 
The kidney bean-shaped with a length of 10-12 cm thick and 3.5-5 cm in diameter, located in the rear of the abdominal membrane body (retroperitonium) next to the top. The right kidney is located lower than the left kidney.
The kidney is wrapped by a thin fibrous network of hoops. On the medial side there are basins, known as hilar, which is where in and out of the blood vessels and ureter. The upper ureter and kidney dilated hilar fill, known as kidney Cup (the left pelvis). The left Pelvis will be divided into large and small bowls called kaliks major (2 pieces) and minor kaliks (8 to 12 pieces). Every minor kaliks include cone-shaped protrusion of kidney tissue called renal papillae. On the vertical piece of the kidneys it appears that each of the papilla is the culmination of the pyramids that extends from hilar to Bowman. These papillae on its 10-25 pieces of duct koligens. One of the pyramids with the cortex enclosing them were considered as a renal lobe.
Renal histology is encased in a capsule or altered the fatty tissue and altered collagen connective tissue. This Organ is made up of parts of the cortex and Medulla that each other is not limited by network special delimiters, there are parts that go into the medulla cortex and there are parts of the cortex to the medulla. The buildings found in the cortex and Medulla of the kidney are:
a. renal Cortex consists of several buildings including:
1. the corpus consists of Malpighi Bowman (cup-shaped building) and the glomerulus (capillary/gulungan tassels).
2. The system of tubules that tubules kontortus proksimalis and distal kontortus tubule.
b. renal Medulla consists of several buildings which are part of the system of tubules that pars descendens and descendens ansa ansa Henle thin part, Henle, ekskretorius duct (duct koligens) and ducts of papilaris Bellini.

Kidney function include:
a. Discard leftover material especially nitrogen compounds such as urea and creatinin resulting from metabolism of food by the body, foreign substances and products the rest of.
b. Regulate the balance of water and electrolytes.
c. set the balance of acid and alkaline.
d. Produce renin that plays a role in blood pressure regulation.
e. Produce erythropoietin, which has a role in the process of the formation of erythrocytes in the bone marrow.
f. production and excretion of urine.

2. Ureter 
The Ureter is the single channel that funnels urine from the renal corpuscle pelvis toward the vesica urinari (bags of urine). Ureteral mucosa on forming folds with elongated epithel inbetween, layers thicker than the left pelvis.
3. the bladder (urinary bladder vesika urinaria//nier)
Bladder or vesika urinaria is holding a bag of urine from kidney Urine both accommodated then for discarded periodically.

4. Urethra
The urethra is a channel that conveys the urine from the bag of art out of the body.

B. Nefrotoksikan And Workplace.
Toxic materials in the system called nefrotoksikan urinaria. The main group nefrotoksikan is a heavy metal, antibiotic, anolgesik and the hydro-carbon berhalogen. All 24 nefron can potentially undermined by the effects of toksikan. Weighing some of the effects varied from one or more of the biochemical changes to cell death, and this effect can appears as small changes in renal function or renal failure total. Work nefrotoksikan on the parts of the kidneys are: 
1. the Glomerulus
Antibiotic uromisin can increase the permeability of the glomerulus of proteins such as albumin.
2 proximal Tubules.
The levels of toksikan on the proximal tubules are often higher. Thus it is often a target for toxic effects. In addition, many of the antibiotic is also secreted by the proximal tubules and menyababkan changes to some of the functions of the tubules. Examples of antibiotiknya are kanamisin, neomisin, streptomycin, gentamicin and amphotericin-B
3. the distal Tubule
Tetracycline and amphotericin B affects the distal tubules and resulted in a reduction in the acidity of urine because one of the functions of the tubules is the secretion of H +. 

C. Types Of Heavy Metals And Their Effects On The System Of The Urinaria.
These kinds of toxic materials are lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd). The effects of toxicity among others are:
1. lead (Pb)
The process of inclusion of Pb in the body can be through some path i.e. melalauui food and drink, air, and permeation or penetration on membranes or skin layers. Pb compounds that enter the body through food and drinks will be included in the metabolic processes of the body. The process of metabolism that result will be transported through the blood will then be difiltrasi in the kidneys to be excreted urine. Blood containing toksikan material in the form of Pb will damage the cells of tubules, so the function will change the tubules in the kidneys. Pb will be able cause lesions on the tubules and curved henle. The tubules function is interrupted so that the process of reabsorption of protein in the blood that occurs in the tubules, causing aminosiduria i.e. the presence of amino acids in the urine.
2. the effects of mercury (Hg)
Mercury into the body usually via the per-oral with pencernaaan systems. Mercury corrosive when it contacts. If eaten, these substances will cause abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea with corrosive ulcer, hemorrhage, necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects included with kidney damage, especially peeling and necrosis of cells proximal tubules, so the clog the tubules. Blood containing glucose, glucose reabsorption occurs after the supposed to be back in circulation, but due to disorders of the tubules, causing glukosuria marked the presence of glucose in urine. Supposedly the urine does not contain glucose, because the kidney filtration results glucose will absorb back into the blood circulation. Glukosuria will cause dehydration because water will terekskresi in large quantities into the urine through a process called osmosis diuresis. Poliuria is a situation where the volume of urine is more than normal. Usually more than 3 L/day.
3. Cadmium (Cd)
The kidneys are the main organs that were attacked by chronic exposure to cadmium. Cadmium entry into the body through oral inhalation and per. Data from human studies showed that Cadmium requires a 10-year period to cause kidney damage but also depends on the intensity of the exposure. Exposure to cadmium will cause the active secretion and absorption in the proximal tubules, proximal tubules at toksikan levels are often higher. In addition, the levels of cytochrome P-450 in the proximal tubule is higher to detoxify or enable toksikan. At higher doses of heavy metals can cause cell death, BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) are increasing, and anuria. Nefrotoksisitas can be caused by a combination of direct cell toxicity and ischemia due to vasoconstriction. Cadmium causes damage to the glomerulus including albumin increases in urine and peneurunan rate of glomerulus filtration, thus causing the aminosiduria i.e. the presence of amino acids in the urine. 

D. Procedure For Testing Toxic Effects On The System Urinaria
Functional examination and kidney morfologik routinely carried out as an integral part of the research on toxicity of short term and long term. Examination to assess the presence of disorders of the urinaria system consists of:

1. Urine Analysis
a. Proteinuria. Due to their molecular size, only very little protein with low molecular weights can be through the glomerulus filtration. Low molecular weight proteins easily reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. Thus, the existence of such a protein in the urine is a inddikasi loss of tubule reabsorption of fungssi, such as Cadmium poisoning. On the contrary, the excretion of high molecular weight proteins showed a loss of integrity of the glomeruli.
b. Glycosuria. Glucose in the glomerulus filtrate is completely reabsorbed by the tubules, provided that the amount of glucose absorbed back does not exceed transport maximum (Tm). Thus, glycosuria indicates hyperglycemia without malfunctioning of tubules.
c. the Volume of urine and Osmolaritas. Both of these values are usually inversely and is an indicator of kidney function that is useful in test and pemekatan test dilution. Osmolaritas can be estimated from gravity, but the measurement of freezing point of urine is more appropriate. Toksikan can cause kidney failure, high output as mentioned above. Instead, toksikan can lead to oliguria or anuria due to damage even the tubules, interstitial edema and accompanied by deposition or sisas intraluminal.
d. Acidification Capacity. The capacity of this acidification can be judged from the acid pH of the urine, which can be titrated, and NH +. This capacity will be reduced when there is a disturbance of the function of the distal tubules.
e. an enzyme. Such enzymes maltase and trehalase in urine can indicate the presence of damage to the proximal tubules. Lysozyme levels in urine are very mennkat in the case of Chromium poisoning, but only increased slightly on mercury poisoning. In General, enzymes in urine with careful berguba on the State of acute nefrotoksik.

2. Blood Analysis
a. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Blood urea Nitrogen obtained from normal protein metabolism and excreted through the urine. Increased BUN usually indicates damage to the glomerulus. However, the BUN levels can also be affected by the lack of food substances and hepatotoxicity which is a common effect of some toksikan.
b. Creatinin. Creatinin is a metabolite of creatine and diekskresi entirely in the urine through the glomerulus filtration. Thus, the rising levels of creatinin in blood shows that there is an indication of damage to kidney function. In addition, data kreatini levels in the blood and the amount in the urine can be used to estimate the rate of glomerulus filtration. One drawback of this procedure is the fact that most creatinin secreted by tubule.

3. Special Test
a. rate of Glomerulus Filtration (GFR). The rate of fitrasi the glomerulus may be determined more correctly with clearance polysaccharide a, inuli. The glomerulus filtrate to diffuse polysaccharide and not reabsorbed by the tubules nor diekskresi.
b. Kidney Cleavage. Cleavage (clearance) of the kidney is the volume of plasma cleared entirely of a substance in a given unit of time. Impurity p-aminohipurat acid (PAH) on the renal excess cleavage inulin in the kidneys because of PAH is not only filtered by the glomerulus but also secreted by tubule. Reduced PAH disposal without any decrease in the GFR indicates the malfunctioning of tubules.
c. Test PSP Excretion. The rate of excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) related to the blood flow of renal padda. Therefore, the rate of eksresi is often used to puts the kidney function. But a slowdown in the rate of secretion can also be caused by cardiovascular disease.

4. Examination Morfologik
a Macroscopic Examination.
b. Light Microscope
c. electron microscopy


Based on the explanation above it can be concluded that:
1. the system is an important system urinaria to dispose of the remains of the metabolism of the food which is produced by the body primarily nitrogen compounds such as urea and creatinin, foreign substances and products the rest. Urinaria system consists of: both kidneys (ren, kidney), Ureteral, bladder (urinary bladder vesika urinaria//nier) and the urethra.
2. in the system of toxic Material called nefrotoksikan urinaria. The main group nefrotoksikan is a heavy metal, antibiotic, anolgesik and the hydro-carbon berhalogen. the kidneys are usually attacked by nefrtoksikan is the glomerulus, proximal tubule, and tubules distal.
3. the types of toxic materials from a group of heavy metals are lead (Pb) that can change the function of the tubule, and tubules lesions causing proksimalis henle, curved, as well as lead to aminosiduria., mercury (Hg) which can lead to the occurrence of glukosuria and poliuria, and cadmium (Cd) that causes damage to the glomerulus.
4. test procedure the examination to assess the presence of disorders of the urinaria system consists of a urine analysis, blood analysis, test and examination of special morfologik.

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Lu, Frank C. 1995. the basic Toxicology. Jakarta UI Press

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